Personal Factors affecting Consumer Behaviour Personal Factors affecting Consumer Behaviour Consumer Behaviour helps us understand the buying tendencies and spending patterns of consumers.
A field experiment involving consumers dining at a restaurant was carried out to investigate the extent to which music tempo influences actual and perceived time spent dining and the amount of money spent. The results show that when slow music is playing, customers spend a significantly greater amount of time dining than when fast music is playing.
There was some evidence that perceptions of time spent dining were influenced by the music, but not to a significant level. Finally, the music tempo was found to have a significant effect on money spent on both food and drink at the restaurant.
The research reported in this paper focuses on music as an element of the service environment. The influence of music on consumer behaviour within service environments has been studied by a variety of scholars Milliman, ; ; Yalch and Spangenberg, ; North and Hargreaves, Understanding of the effects of music is particularly useful to service managers, as this element of the environment is relatively inexpensive and easy to control.
Specifically, the paper examines the effects of music tempo on perceived and actual time spent in a restaurant and the amount of money spent.
Tai and Fung distinguish two main streams of literature that have emerged within the body of literature on atmospherics in service settings. On one hand are those studies that treat the service atmosphere as a holistic concept, focusing on the combined effects of various elements of the environment on consumer behaviour McGoldrick and Pieros, ; Donovan and Rossiter, On the other hand are studies that focus on specific atmospheric elements such as colour Bellizzi et al.
A dominant model adopted to develop understanding of how the service environment affects consumer behaviour is the Mehrabian and Russel model of environmental psychology Baker and Grewel, ; Foxall, ; Kenhove and Desrumaux, ; Tai and Fung, This model adopts the stimulus-organism-response S-O-R paradigm and proposes that perceptions of stimuli in the environment S lead to emotional responses in individuals O which, in turn, produce approach-avoidance behaviour R.
Although this model is widely accepted as a valid explanation of the processes underlying individuals' responses to built environments, other explanations have been offered.
For example, East advances the idea that the effects of service environments on consumer behaviour are not necessarily mediated by emotional states. Instead, it may be that service atmospherics directly stimulate behaviour and that emotional responses are incidental and not part of the causal sequence affecting behaviour.
The Role of Music The amount of literature on the effects of music on consumer behaviour is relatively limited but has steadily grown over the last two decades. Bruner II provides a review of the literature up to the beginning of the s and continued interest in the topic is demonstrated by more recent work by authors such as North and Hargreaves a,b, cAreni and Kim and Kellaris and Altsech The two main domains in which the effects of music have been explored are advertising Tom, ; Alpert and Alpert, ; Gorn, and service environments Areni and Kim, ; Yalch and Spangenberg, ; Milliman, ; Of the research that focuses on service environments, the majority has investigated the effects of music in retail stores or shopping malls.
To the authors' knowledge, only Milliman and North and Hargreaves a, b have considered alternative service settings, which in these cases were restaurants and cafeterias.
It was, therefore, decided that the present research would build on these latter studies, further exploring the effects of music in the context of a restaurant. Bruner II notes that "Music is not a generic sonic mass, but rather a complex chemistry of controllable elements" p Music can vary along various dimensions including timbre the texture of the music, which incorporates volumerhythm the pattern of accents given to notes and tempo the speed or rate at which the rhythm progresses.
The effect of music on behaviour has been suggested to operate via its effect on cognitive and emotional processes Seidman, Much of the research that has considered the effects of music on individuals' emotional states draws on Berlyn's arousal hypothesis that preference, and thus pleasure for aesthetic stimuli such as music, is related to the arousal potential of the stimuli.
Highly arousing music is defined as loud, erratic and difficult to predict with a quick tempo, while music with low arousal qualities is soft, monotonous, very predictable and with a slow tempo Berlyn, One of the more consistent findings of research into the effects of particular components of music on behaviour is that music that is more arousing leads to individuals spending less time on activities.
Smith and Cunrow revealed that when loud music was played in a supermarket customers spent less time shopping and Milliman demonstrated that music tempo affects the speed with which consumers moved around a store.
Milliman later showed that the tempo of music in a restaurant affected the time that people spent in the restaurant, such that individuals dining under the fast music condition spent less time at their tables than individuals dining under the slow tempo condition.
Similar evidence of the effects of music tempo includes research by Robaley et al. The first hypothesis for this research is therefore: Music tempo will affect actual time spent in the restaurant such that individuals dining under the slow tempo condition will spend more time in the restaurant than individuals dining under the fast tempo condition.
Although there are now several studies that have examined the effects of music on actual time spent in stores Milliman, ; Smith and Cunrow, and restaurants Milliman,little research has investigated the effects of music on consumer time perceptions.
Kellaris and Kent illustrated that individuals judged the duration of fast tempo music to be longer than slow tempo music.
Similarly, Kellaris and Altsech have shown that loud music, which has similar arousal properties to fast music, is perceived as longer in duration that quiet music. These studies provide some evidence that time tends to be over-estimated when people are exposed to music with higher arousal properties.The Influences of Perceived Value on Consumer Purchase Intention: The Moderating Effect of Advertising Endorser Dr.
Hsinkuang Chi, Nanhua University, Taiwan. Jun 22, · Most organizations strive to be more collaborative, but a new study finds that the most effective are five times as productive as those who don't adopt targeted collaboration. Alexis McGill Johnson, Executive Director.
Alexis is the Executive Director and Co-Founder of Perception Institute. A thought leader and a bridge builder whose work spans politics, academia, social activism, and cultural strategies, her career has always focused on improving the lives of young people, with an emphasis on youth of color.
STUDY ON “A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER PERCEPTION REGARDING THE SUCCESS OF BIG BAZAAR” [pic] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT One of the most pleasant parts of preparing the project is the opportunity to thank those who have contributed to its preparation.
The list of expression of thanks – no matter how extensive is always incomplete and inadequate. Consumers' preferences, behavior and perception of meat have been reviewed. • There is a need to reduce uncertainty and tie expectations more closely to tangible product properties.
The PRC Consumer & Brand Study is the most comprehensive market assessment available, providing you with reliable data to see how your hospital’s services and programs stack up against the competition.