Keith Ward, former Regius Professor of Divinity and head of the theology department at Oxford University, wrote a highly acclaimed five-volume series on comparative religions. But atheism and agnosticism fit many of the diverse definitions of religion present in religious scholarship. Everyone has a belief system, whether or not the word religion is applied And everyone whether Christian, Hindu, atheist, or agnostic, etc.
In our response, we have organized the materially systematically and quoted from it extensively, using the edition Pelican Books, First, a historic continuity of the early and present Roman Catholic churches is acknowledged. However, this proves nothing as such because, as admitted, it may be a corruption of the original doctrine.
Second, this assumes without justification that the original doctrine was correct.
But, as will be shown below, the original two sources view Scripture and Tradition is not correct. For a parallel example, the present US government is the historic descendant of the first one. However, many decisions of the Supreme Court are directly contrary to the First Amendment of the Constitution as envisioned by its framers.
For instance, the framers did not intend it to enact a separation of Church and State and never even used the terms.
But the current Supreme Court following the Everson ruling in declared: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions or prefer one religion over another….
So, it is with the earlier and later Roman Church as shown below. This premise is challenged on two grounds.
First, even if Catholicism was an uncorrupted development of the original idea, Catholicism would not be true, if the original idea was false. It would just be a logical development of a false idea.
Second, as will be shown below, there was significant doctrinal corruption between earlier and later Catholicism. The tests to determine whether development or corruption of the ideas occurred include: Preservation of the Basic Idea This parallels the development of a living organism from conception to maturity There are several problems with this test.
Protestants take it to be sola Scripture see below and Roman Catholics believe it is Scripture plus Tradition, that is, as interpreted by the Roman Catholic teaching Magisterium.
The development of these different basic ideas will bring about different results. Second, one can question whether the analogy between the development of a doctrine and the development of a living organism is a proper analogy.
There are, after all, some significant differences between the two: Even Newman himself claims a heresy is like a living organism. Continuity of the Principles Non-Roman Catholics acknowledge a doctrinal continuity between original and later Catholicism without accepting Catholicism. For example, Protestants agree with Catholics on the dogmas of the first four ecumenical councils and Eastern Orthodox agrees on the first seven councils.
The basic idea could have been preserved in these earlier councils, as it has been noted: Since Catholicism embraces these as well, it too has a doctrinal continuity with earlier Christianity. However, this does not as such support the Catholic claim to be the true Church.
The Power of Assimilation A living idea becomes many, yet remains one. The attempt at development shows the presence of a principle, and its success the presence of an idea.
But this is a questionable analogy. Further, since this is based on the first two tests and is a continuation of them, it is subject to the same criticisms of these two tests see above.
Finally, even if this principle was valid, it would only demonstrate that ideas develop in a certain way; it would not prove that the original ideas were true. Early Anticipation of Aspects of the Idea And since developments are in great measure only aspects of the idea from which they come, and all of them are natural consequences of it, it is often a matter of accident in what order they are carried out in individual minds; and it is in no wise strange that here and there definite specimens should very early occur, which in the historical course are not found till a late day….To Everyone an Answer has 26 ratings and 2 reviews.
Emily said: This is a good, semi-academic overview of Christian apologetics (ie a defense of the fait /5. Gerry, Thanks much for the great resource! On that topic, Bo Jinn comments in Illogical Atheism. The Humanist Manifestos were three official sets of atheist credos, drafted and signed separately over the course of exactly seven decades.
Norman L. Geisler’s Impact chapter The Impact of Norman Geisler on Christian Higher Education by Wayne Detzler · chapter A Detroit Yankee in King Cotton’s Court: Love Expressed in the Thought and Writings of Norman Geisler .
McDermott, Gerald Robert: Civil Religion in the American Revolutionary Period: An Historiographic Analysis: XVIII: 4: McDonald, H.
Dermot: Hope: Human and Christian. If this is the best of possible worlds, what then are the others? Even in those cities which seem to enjoy the blessings of peace, and where the arts florish, the inhabitants are devoured by envy, cares and anxieties, which are greater plagues than any experienced in a town when it is under siege.
For all these reasons, the only biblically possible view is that Adam and Eve were created on the sixth, literal, normal, hour day after the beginning of time.