The trends for each disease vary considerably, but together these infections comprise a significant public health problem. An additional 15 million people become infected with one or more STDs each year, roughly half of whom contract lifelong infections. Yet, STDs are one of the least recognized health problems in the country today. Many people with these infections do not have symptoms and remain undiagnosed.
Such factors may cause serious obstacles to STD prevention due to their influence on social and sexual networks, access to and provision of care, willingness to seek care, and social norms regarding sex and sexuality. Among certain vulnerable populations, historical experience with segregation and discrimination exacerbates the influence of these factors.
Social, economic, and behavioral factors that affect the spread of STDs include: Racial and ethnic disparities. Race and ethnicity in the United States are correlated with other determinants of health status, such as poverty, limited access to health care, fewer attempts to get medical treatment, and living in communities with high rates of STDs.
STDs disproportionately affect disadvantaged people and people in social networks where high-risk sexual behavior is common, and either access to care or health-seeking behavior is compromised.
Access to health care. Access to high-quality health care is essential for early detection, treatment, and behavior-change counseling for STDs.
Groups with the highest rates of STDs are often the same groups for whom access to or use of health services is most limited. Many studies document the association of substance abuse with STDs.
Perhaps the most important social factors contributing to the spread of STDs in the United States are the stigma associated with STDs and the general discomfort of discussing intimate aspects of life, especially those related to sex. A person may have only 1 sex partner, but if that partner is a member of a risky sexual network, then the person is at higher risk for STDs than a similar individual from a lower-risk network.
Each state must address system-level barriers to timely treatment of partners of persons infected with STDs, including the implementation of expedited partner therapy for the treatment of chlamydial and gonorrheal infections.
Innovative communication strategies are critical for addressing issues of disparities, facilitating HPV vaccine uptake, and normalizing perceptions of sexual health and STD prevention, particularly as they help reduce health disparities.
It is necessary to coordinate STD prevention efforts with the health care delivery system to leverage new developments provided by health reform legislation. References 1 King K, et al.
Janus considers the HIV pandemic: Harnessing recent advances to enhance AIDS prevention. Am J Public Health.
Sexually transmitted infections among U. Prevalence and incidence estimates, Sex Transm Dis ; 40 3: The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, Confronting sexually transmitted diseases.
National Academies Press; Country Health Advice United States of America Sexually Transmitted Infections Description. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), are caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites that are transmitted through unprotected sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) and skin to skin genital contact.
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease/sexually transmitted infection (STD/STI) in the United States.
It is spread through contact with the penis, mouth, vagina, or anus of a person infected with chlamydia. Fact Sheet: Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States.
From Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. October/November Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the infections and resulting clinical syndromes caused by approximately 30 infectious organisms.
TRANSMISSION Sexual activity is the predominant mode of transmission, through genital, anal, or oral mucosal contact. Sexually transmitted infections STIs are usually spread by having vaginal, oral, or anal sex. More than 9 million women in the United States are diagnosed with an STI each year.
1 Women often have more serious health problems from STIs than men, including infertility. The United States' rise in STD diagnoses isn't a sign of moral decline, it's a public health failure of epic proportions.
Sexually transmitted diseases are at .