Info The Export of Democracy: Successes and Failures of EU Enlargement The European Union played a very important role in transforming post-communist countries into democratic states with functioning market economies and the rule of law. The massive transfer of institutional and legal know-how from member states to candidate countries, which was guided by the European Commission and other institutions, is in many ways a historically unprecedented event.
Copper became a stable source of prosperity for the local population. Excavations of Lusatian hill forts document the substantial development of trade and agriculture at that period.
The richness and the diversity of tombs increased considerably. The inhabitants of the area manufactured arms, shields, jewellery, dishes, and statues. During Hallstatt times, monumental burial mounds were erected in western Slovakia, with princely equipment consisting of richly decorated vessels, ornaments and decorations.
The burial rites consisted entirely of cremation. The common people were buried in flat urnfield cemeteries. A special role was given to weaving and the production of textiles. The local power of the "Princes" of the Hallstatt period disappeared in Slovakia during the last century before the middle of first millennium BCE, after strife between the Scytho -Thracian people and locals, resulting in abandonment of the old hill-forts.
Relatively depopulated areas soon caught interest of emerging Celtic tribes, who advanced from the south towards the north, following the Slovak rivers, peacefully integrating into the remnants of the local population.
Biatecssilver coins with inscriptions in the Latin alphabet, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia. This culture is often connected with the Celtic tribe mentioned in Roman sources as Cotini. Such Roman border settlements were built on the present area of Rusovcecurrently a suburb of Bratislava.
The military fort was surrounded by a civilian vicus and several farms of the villa rustica type. The name of this settlement was Gerulata. The military fort had an auxiliary cavalry unit, approximately horses strong, modelled after the Cananefates.
Great invasions from the 4th to 7th centuries[ edit ] In the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, the Huns began to leave the Central Asian steppes.
Ina Turko-Mongol tribal confederacy, the Avarsconducted its own invasion into the Middle Danube region. The Avars occupied the lowlands of the Pannonian Plainand established an empire dominating the Carpathian Basin.
Inthe Slavic population living in the western parts of Pannonia seceded from their empire after a revolution led by Samo, a Frankish merchant. Slavic states[ edit ] The Slavic tribes settled in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th century.
A Slavic state known as the Principality of Nitra arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church of the territory of present-day Slovakia consecrated by Together with neighbouring Moraviathe principality formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire from Great Moravia —before [ edit ] Main article: Inthey introduced Christianity to what is now Slovakia.
Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language. Rastislav was also preoccupied with the security and administration of his state.
Numerous fortified castles built throughout the country are dated to his reign and some of them e. During his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only present-day Moravia and Slovakia but also present-day northern and central HungaryLower AustriaBohemiaSilesiaLusatiasouthern Poland and northern Serbia belonged to the empire, but the exact borders of his domains are still disputed by modern authors.
He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern FranciaGreat Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories.
In the meantime, the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes, possibly having suffered defeat from the similarly nomadic Pechenegsleft their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually around Some historians put this year as the date of the break-up of the Great Moravian Empire, due to the Hungarian conquest; other historians take the date a little bit earlier to Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their sociocultural development. The administrative system of Great Moravia may have influenced the development of the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. Kingdom of Hungary — [ edit ] Stephen IKing of Hungary Following the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, the Hungarians annexed the territory comprising modern Slovakia.
After their defeat on the Lech River they abandoned their nomadic ways; they settled in the centre of the Carpathian valley, adopted Christianity and began to build a new state — the Hungarian kingdom. A significant decline in the population resulted from the invasion of the Mongols in and the subsequent famine.
However, in medieval times the area of the present-day Slovakia was characterised by German and Jewish immigration, burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the cultivation of the arts.
It become part of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy, marking the beginning of a new era. The territory comprising modern Slovakia, then known as Upper Hungarybecame the place of settlement for nearly two-thirds of the Magyar nobility fleeing the Turks and far more linguistically and culturally Hungarian than it was before.
Upper Hungary, modern Slovakia, became the site of frequent wars between Catholics in the west territory and Protestants in the east, also against Turks, the frontier was on a constant state of military alert and heavily fortified by castles and citadels often manned by Catholic German and Slovak troops on the Habsburg side.
BySlovakia was not spared the Counter-Reformationwhich brought the majority of its population from Lutheranism back to Roman Catholicism.Slovakia joined the European Union and NATO in and the Eurozone in Slovakia is a member of the United Nations (since ) and participates in its specialized agencies.
The country was, on 10 October , elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from to The European Union (EU) is a unique political and economic partnership that currently consists of 28 member states (see the map in the Appendix).
1 Built through a series of binding treaties, the Union is the latest stage in a process of integration begun after World War II to promote peace. The European Union is a unified trade and monetary body of 28 member countries.
It eliminates all border controls between members. That allows the free flow of goods and people, except for random spot checks for crime and drugs. main one of the most important countries for the European Union.
In terms of its significance European Community membership in , Tur-key has been in the accession process for almost three. Slovakia has 9 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee.
This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.
The EU was not always as big as it is today. When European countries started to cooperate economically in , only Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands participated.